Hypertension is a certain disorder on blood vessel and heart that cause oxygen supply and nutrients substance that be carried by blood are blocked in to body tissues those necessity. Hypertension often is named as silent killer because it is counted to a killing disease without specific symptoms before, as notification for its sufferers. Most the etiologies of Hypertension are unknown, but it is suspected by: stresses, genetic, smoking, obesity, less of physical activity or sport, consume hard drinks, disorder of kidney, and others. Consequence of hypertension can cause complication like as: heart attack, stroke, renal failure, heart failure, and blindness.
Risk factors of Hypertension:
Advanced age more than 45 years; Women who had menopause; Family had hypertension history; Peoples who were not enforced healthy lifestyles.
Symptoms of Hypertension:
Hypertension has the same symptoms with other diseases and each people indicate very variously symptoms. Those symptoms like as: headache, heart palpitate, easily tired, blur of vision, more often urinate, tinnitus, vertigo or earth is felt around, bloody nose.
Diagnosis of Hypertension:
It is said hypertension if on measuring by sphygmomanometer indicate the result more than normal value of blood pressure (normal value by systole between 100-130 mmHg and diastole less than or same with 85 mmHg).
Classifications of Hypertension:
Hypertension disease can be classified as below to make easy in management of cases:
- Hypertension degree 1 (mild hypertension) if on measuring gets systole between 140-159 mmHg and diastole between 90-99 mmHg.
- Hypertension degree 2 (moderate hypertension) if on measuring gets systole between 160-179 mmHg and diastole between 100-109 mmHg.
- Hypertension degree 3 (severe hypertension) if on measuring gets systole more than 179 mmHg and diastole more than 109 mmHg.
Prevention of Hypertension:
- Regular’s examination of blood pressures.
- Lessen the food which content high salt concentration.
- Enforce physical activity 30 minutes minimal everyday.
- Enforce aerobic sports (jogging, healthy walk, swim, bike, gymnastic) during 20-60 minutes minimal 3-5 times a week. Not smoking.
- Keep normal body weight.
- Restrain the stresses.
- Rest enough.
Medical therapy of Hypertension:
There are two methods therapy of hypertension:
- Non Pharmacology therapy, for hypertension degree 1 (mild hypertension) like as: low salt diet but rich potassium, no smoking, no hard drinks, reduces body weight for people who’s fatty, sport regularly, be avoided activity that cause stresses.
- Pharmacology therapy, for hypertension degree 2 and 3 (moderate and severe hypertension) by some drugs like as: Prazosin (Alpha blocker), Captopril (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme / ACE inhibitor), and Nifedipine (Calcium antagonist). Prazosin (Minipress ®) has vasodilator effect by work on Alpha 1 receptor, very all right if be given for hypertension sufferers who had Diabetes Mellitus or Hypercholesterolemia. Prazosin usually is given by combination with diuretic drug. Initial Dose administration of Prazosin is twice of 0.5 mg daily and then be increased slowly until average dose twice of 1-2 mg daily. Captopril (Capoten ®) as ACE inhibitor inhibit the change of Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II wich cause not release Renin, until vasoconstriction is not occurred. Contraindication of Captopril administration is pregnancy. Initial dose administration of Captopril is twice to three times of 12.5 mg daily and then be increased slowly until average dose twice of 25-50 mg daily. Nifedipin is given to hypertension sufferers whose have heart disease suffering. Initial dose administration of Nifedipin is three times of 10 mg daily and then be increased slowly until average dose twice to three times of 30 mg daily.