AVIAN INFLUENZA DISEASE
Until at 21st January, 2008, accordance with the report that be accepted by Pusat Komunikasi Publik dari Posko Flu Burung Direktorat Jenderal Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia at 22nd January, 2008 , case fatality rate of Avian Influenza on human in Indonesia more than 80, 8% with total cases 120 persons and died 97 persons from early. That mean increase from 76 % at February, 2007. Those require seriously control of avian influenza by all of ours. Spreading sources of avian influenza still come from fowl. Of because the community be hoped wary continue and give response toward the fowl which sudden ill and died. The Community must be able to implement healthy and clean lifestyle behavior every day in order to be avoided from avian influenza viral. We need to know and remember what is the avian influenza and participating to prevent spreading of avian influenza.
Avian Influenza is a communicable disease that be caused by Influenza virus strain type A (H5N1). It is transmitted by the fowl that’s able to attack the human. Generally Avian Influenza virus attacks the fowl only, but certain many types have experience to change become more savage and attack human.
The symptoms that be found in avian influenza as generally influenza symptoms i.e. fever, sore throat, cough, with snot, muscle pain, headache, fatigue. In short time this disease can become more severe as lung infection (pneumonia), and if the treatment of case is bad can cause the patient will die.
Etiology and Characteristics
As etiology of this disease is Influenza virus. The characteristics of this virus i.e.: able to live endure in water until four days at temperature 22oC and more than 30 days at temperature 0oC. In feces and body of avian or fowl that is ill this virus can live endure more long time, but will die on heating 60oC for 30 minutes.
Incubation periods of influenza virus are variously between 1 – 3 days.
Sources and spreading method
Spreading of avian influenza (H5N1) in fowl occur accordance with fast by high fatality rate. Spreading this disease occur in the meanwhile fowl population one fowl husbandry, moreover can spread from one fowl husbandry to other area fowl husbandry. Whereas the spreading this disease to human can pass through air which be contaminated by virus from feces or mucus of fowl that is attacked by avian influenza. People whose have high risk be attacked by this avian influenza (H5N1) are employee of fowl husbandry, seller and a person who has task fowl preparation. No evidence yet occurs spreading from person to person. Besides that no evidence yet spreading in human passes through fowl meat consumption.
The patient who’s suffering an avian influenza should be treated by hospitalization. In hospital they are given as below:
- Oxygenation, if be found respiratory disorder and it will become respiratory failure in trend by oxygen maintenance more than 90%.
- Hydrations by give them intra vena fluids.
- They can be given anti viral medicine i.e. : Oseltamivir 75 mg twice every day for 7 days.
- In respiratory distress case the treatment is given accordance with RDS procedures and the patient be treated in ICU room especially.
- Amantadine/Rimantadin is given in early infection at the first of 48 hours for 3 – 5 days by 5 mg/kg body weigh/day be divided two doses. If the body weighs of patient more than 45 kg is given 100 mg dose twice a day. In elder and patient with decrease of liver or kidney functions the dose must be decreased.
- Oseltamivir for children less than 15 kg body weigh is 30 mg dose twice a day, more than 15 – 23 kg body weigh is 45 mg dose twice a day, more than 23 – 40 kg body weigh is 60 mg dose twice a day, and more than 40 kg body weigh is 75 mg dose twice a day. Dose of oseltamivir for a patient age more than 13 years is 75 mg twice a day.
Prevention efforts spreading of avian influenza can be implemented by avoids material that is contaminated by feces and mucus of fowl with efforts as below:
- A person who’s contact with material from gastrointestinal tract of bird has to use body protection (masker, goggles).
- The material from gastrointestinal tract of fowl as feces must be managed finely (be graved, be burned) in other it does not become spreading sources for people it’s around.
- The instrument which be used in fowl husbandry must be disinfected.
- Stable and feces may not be exited from fowl husbandry location.
- To consumptive chicken meat that is cooked at temperature 80oC for one minute, whereas the fowl egg need be heated at temperature 64oC for five minute.
- Keep the environment always clean.
- Keep self hygiene.